Community of practice is gaining attention, and because of its nature, i. Accordingly, it is possible to predict that it will be one of the best and widely utilized tools of KM in the future to bring all the stakeholders in knowledge intensive sectors such as healthcare. The three pillars of knowledge sharing are people, processes and technology.
Similarly, knowledge sharing is influenced by people, process and technology Thus, for knowledge flow, there is a need for the right balance among these three pillars of knowledge sharing 5. Knowledge flow is also made possible via virtual communication, which is a recent development in healthcare delivery. In this way, especially people with disability can get healthcare services by being at their homes, which avoids or minimizes transporting them to hospitals or healthcare facilities. Moreover, one of the big concern in many countries today is the rise in the numbers of aging population, a group that needs intensive care.
Virtual communication and HHU can thus be the best solution to provide the necessary healthcare services for elderly people because, like people with disability, frequent visit to health facilities can worsen their health situation besides transportation costs. Therefore, ICT based health services and systems, which is a real-time continuous activity also known as smart home 21 , is unprecedented in providing better healthcare delivery.
With respect to the EBMP, currently, the concepts of knowledge and evidence have received much attention 23 , and it is thus not an option but a must for health professionals to remain competent. To do so, continuous learning and training are important.
In today's health care, the amount of information and knowledge processing requirement is so overwhelming because huge data and information are gathered from every healthcare service provider every single day. Hence, KM tools that facilitate capture and distribution of clinical knowledge become vital, especially for healthcare organizations that champion distribution of their best practices to care for their patients The availability of multiple KM technologies, applications and utilizations are issues that need to be addressed accordingly by respective healthcare organizations.
Two main aspects that have to be looked into are the knowledge of the employees to utilize the tools and the issue of initial investment. Since installation and maintenance demand big finance, a given organization has to make sure that the process is successful and meets the goal it is intended for.
It is utmost importance that the top management unconditionally support the initiative and the full implementation of KM As to the problem of the use of the tools, continuous training should be provided for the employees until they can fully make use of it without seeking assistance. In general, KM implementation and complete patient information 1 by using systems such as EHR improve quality of care for patients and are prospects for healthcare sector.
Lack of motivation of employees to share knowledge is one of the barriers to implementation of KM 12 , 15 , Knowledge sharing provides a connection between people and organization and also creation, dissemination, collaboration, innovation and acquisition of knowledge.
Thus, knowledge sharing has an important influence in KM implementation The reason is that even if a state-of-the-art technology is available, it is of no value if employees are not ready to share their knowledge. The underlining reason for knowledge hoarding is lack of awareness and problem of trust due to fear of loss of recognition ones the knowledge they possess is captured and coded.
This issue is supported by other studies 48 , Therefore, there should be the right policy in place to guarantee physicians and convince them that knowledge sharing is all about the patients they are laboring hard to save by improving quality of care to be provided. Moreover, physicians should be given incentives for their time to use the system.
This is because time is the most constraining factor for them, a barrier that is emphasized in other studies 49 , It is obvious that healthcare is not about few individuals or limited to a single organization; rather, it is wide in scope because various stakeholders should involve. The findings of this review showed that there exist lack of communication between policy makers and researchers and also lack of applied research 29 , However, it is crucial that all are in harmony for a better outcome.
Thus, policy makers are expected to give due attention to the research outputs, and researchers should concentrate on applied research to tackle priority problems and provide sustainable solution that improves quality of care. The existing opportunities to implement KM in healthcare, specifically the KM tools, deserve attention.
Numbers of opportunities are reported in the articles reviewed for the present review work. Web 2. These technologies are very interactive, most importantly initiated and managed by volunteers.
There are numbers of reasons for professionals to use such tools, the main ones being effective communication, managing personal knowledge, generating discussion about new concepts or ideas, finding answers to particular problems, staying informed about latest news and activities of fellow colleagues, increasing one's social network and building a level of credibility Some of the tools of Web 2. Social Media are especially gaining great attention in every day lives of almost all professionals of any sector who have access to Internet.
Accordingly, it is expected to play more roles in healthcare in the future. Other opportunities include clinical decision support system 40 , electronic health record system 43 , community of practices 44 and advanced care management In order to realize a full-fledged implementation of KM in healthcare, all concerned bodies, among others, policy makers, researchers, health professionals and healthcare providers need to come together and play their part to seize the opportunities and improve healthcare quality.
In conclusion, in the present review work, the implementation of KM in healthcare, KM tools in healthcare and the available opportunities and also the barriers were identified as the main theme and providing the right knowledge at the right time, i. To do so, using appropriate tool to manage knowledge and user-friendly system is a requirement as it can significantly improve the quality and safety of care provided for patients both at hospital and home settings. At present and evidently in the future, evidence-based medical practice is not an option, but mandatory due to the fact that evidence-based medical practice, i.
However, this can be applied successfully if and only if the right system is in place for knowledge management, and thus, it should be given due attention. In order to materialize this, it is vital to make use of the available opportunities such as advances in ICT, clinical decision support systems, electronic health record systems and community of practices.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Lawerence Abraham Gojeh and Mr. Ahmed Abdulahi for proof reading the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ethiop J Health Sci. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Competing Interests: The authors declare that this manuscript was approved by all authors in its form and that no competing interest exists.
Received Jan 10; Accepted Jan Copyright Habteyes Hailu. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention.
Methods Three databases, two journals websites and Google Scholar were used as sources for the review. Results It was found that utilization of knowledge management in healthcare is encouraging. Conclusion Providing the right knowledge at the right time, i. Keywords: Knowledge management, tools, evidence-based medical practice, healthcare, informed decision making. Introduction Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management KM and the tools to manage knowledge in health sector are gaining attention 1. This work was intended to answer the following key questions: How is healthcare service delivery affected by the implementation of knowledge management with respect to informed decision making?
What are the challenges that limit KM implementation in healthcare?
Methods Sources of articles and the searching strategy : Electronic resources were identified from various sources. Open in a separate window. The steps involved to identify relevant e-resources for the systematic review. Table 2 KM Tools vs. Discussion Advances in ICT have greatly contributed to knowledge sharing because knowledge can reach the receiver instantly without need to travel to acquire it, rather just a click away if the technological infrastructure is provided. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Dr.
Bordoloi P, Islam N. Knowledge Management practices and healthcare delivery: A contingency framework.
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